Achinewhu, S.C., Ogbonna, C.C. and Hart, A.D. (1995). Chemical composition of indigenous wild herbs, spices, fruits, nuts and leafy vegetables used as food. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 48: 341 – 348.
Adebooye, O.C. and Opabode, J.T. (2004). Status of conservation of the indigenous leaf vegetables and fruits of Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology3(12): 700 – 705.
Adeyeye E.I. and Afolabi, E.O. (2004). Amino acid Composition of three different types of land snails consumed in Nigeria. Food Chemistry 85: 535 –539.
Adeyeye, E.I. (2002). Determination of the chemical composition of the nutritionally valuable parts of male and female common West African fresh water crab Sudananautes africanus. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 53: 189-196.
Adeyeye, E.I. and Otokiti, M.K.O. (1999). Proximate composition and some nutritionally valuable minerals of two varieties of Capsicum annum (Bell and Cherry peppers). Discovery and Innovation 11: 75-81.
Afolayan, A.J. and Jimoh, F.O. (2009). Nutritional quality of some wild leafy vegetables in South Africa. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 60(5): 424 – 431
Agte, V.V., Tarwadi, K.V. and Chiplonkar, S.A. (1999). Phytate degradation during traditional cooking: Significance of the phytic acid profile in cereal-based vegetarian meals. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 12: 161 – 167.
Akindahunsi, A.A. and Oboh, G. (1999). Effect of some post – harvest treatments on the bioavailability of zinc from some selected tropical vegetables. La Revista Italiana Delle Grasse 76: 285 – 287.
Aletor, O., Oshodi, A.A. and Ipinmoroti, K. (2002). Chemical composition of common leafy vegetables and functional properties of their leaf protein concentrates. Food Chemistry 78: 63–68
Aletor, V.A. and Adeogun, O.A. (1995). Nutrient and anti-nutrient components of some tropical leafy vegetables. Food Chemistry 53: 375 – 379.
Allen, E.S., Grimshaw, H.M., Parkinson, J.A. and Quarmby, C. (1974). Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials. Blackwell Scientific Publication, London.
Anyum, F.M., Butt, M.S., Ahmad, N. and Ahmad, I. (2002). Phytate and mineral content in different milling functions of some Pakistan spring wheats. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 37: 13 – 17.
AOAC (1990). Official methods of analysis, 14th edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.
Asibey-Berko, E. and Tayie, F. A. K. (1999). Proximate analysis of some underutilized Ghanaian Vegetables. Ghana Journal of Science 39: 91-92.
Badifu, G.I.O. (2001). Effect of processing on proximate composition, antinutritional and toxic contents of kernels from Cucurbitaceae species grown in Nigeria. Journal of Food composition and Analysis 14: 153 – 161.
Barminas, J.T., Charles, M. and Emmanuel, D. (1998). Mineral composition of non-conventional leafy vegetables. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 53: 29 – 36.
Benjamin, N. (2000). Nitrates in the human diet – good or bad? Annals of Zootechnology 49: 207–216
Betancur-Ancona, D., Gallegos-Tintore, S., Delgado-Herrera, A., Perez-Flores, V., Ruelas, A.C. and Luis Chel-Guerrero, L. (2008). Some physicochemical and antinutritional properties of raw flours and protein isolates from Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean) and Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean). International Journal of Food Science and Technology 43: 816–823.
Bhandari, M.R. and Kawabata, J. (2004). Assessment of antinutritional factors and bioavailability of calcium and zinc in wild yam (Dioscorea spp.) tubers of Nepal. Food Chemistry 85: 281 – 287.
Chadare, F.J., Linnemann, A.R., Hounhouigan, J.D., Nout, M.J.R. and Van Boekel, M.A.J.S. (2009). Baobab food products: a review on their composition and nutritional value. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 49(3):254 – 274.
Cook, J.A., VanderJagt, D.J., Pastuszyn, A., Mounkaila, G., Glew, R.S. and Glew, R.H. (1998). Nutrient content of two plant foods of the Western Sahel: Balanites aegyptiaca and Maerua crassifolia. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 11: 221– 230.
Daily Trust (30th March 2010). Malnutrition, cause of deaths –Experts. Retrieved online 9th march, 2010 from: http://www.news.dailytrust.com/index.php?option=com_content &view=article&id=16388:malnutrition-cause-of-deathsexperts&catid=22:health-report&Itemid=124
Dara, S.S. (2006). A textbook of engineering chemistry. 10th edition, S. Chand and Company LTD., Ram Nagar, New Delhi, India. Pp. 76 – 78.
Dosunmu, M.I. (1997). Chemical composition of the fruit of Tetrapleura tetreptera and the physico-chemical properties of its oil. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences 3(1): 61 – 67.
Duran, A., Tuzen, M. and Soylak, M. (2008). Trace element levels in some dried fruit samples from Turkey. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 59: 581-589.
Ekop, A.S., P.E. Ephraim, and Ekpenyong, E.O. (2004). Chemical composition of African black snails (Archachatina marginataI) from three different habitats in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. ChemClass Journal 1: 123 – 126.
Escudero, N.L., Albarracín, G., Fernández, S., de Arellano, L.M. and Mucciarelli, S. (1999). Nutrient and antinutrient composition of Amaranthus muricatus. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 54: 327–336.
Essien, E.U., Izunwanne, B.C., Aremu, C.Y. and Eka, O.U. (1993). Investigation into the toxic constituents of the dry fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 44(1): 55– 58.
Faruq, U.Z., Sani, A. and Hassan, L.G. (2002): Proximate Composition of Sickel Pod (Senna obtusfolia) Leaves. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 11(2): 157-164.
K. (2004). Proximate composition of bungu (Ceratotheca sesamoides Endl.) leaves and seeds. Biokemistri 16(2): 88 – 92.
FND (2002). Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. National Academy of Sciences. Dietary Reference Intake for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fibre, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acid (Micronutrients). Retrieved on June 6, 2005 from www.nap.edu.
Frontela, C., García-Alonso, F.J., Ros, G. and Martínez, C. (2008). Phytic acid and inositol phosphates in raw flours and infant cereals: The effect of processing. Journal of Food Composition and
Analysis 21(4): 343-350.
Fytianos, K. and Zarogiannis, P. (1999). Nitrate and Nitrite Accumulation in Fresh Vegetables from Greece. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 62: 187-192
Ganry, J. (2008). Promotion of fruits and vegetables in countries of sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian Ocean. Fruits 63: 63.
Glew, R.S., Vanderjagt, D.J., Chuang, L.-T., Huang, Y.-S., M. Millson, M. and Robert H. Glew, R.H. (2005). Nutrient Content of Four Edible Wild Plants from West Africa. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 60(4): 187-193.
Gorecka, D., Lampart-Szczapa, E., Janitz, W. and Sokolowska, B. (2000). Composition of fraction of lupines (L. luteus and L. albus). Nahrung/Food 44: 229 – 232.
Guil, J.L. and Isasa, M.E.T. (1997). Nutritional composition of leaves of Chenopodium species (C. alum. L., Murale L. and C. opulifolium shraesder). International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 48: 321-327.
Gutiérrez, A.J., Gonzalez-Weller, D., Gonzalez, T., Burgos, A., Lozano, G. and Hardisson, A. (2008). Content of trace metals (iron, zinc, manganese, chromium, copper, nickel) in canned variegatedscallops (Chlamys varia). International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 59(6): 535 – 543
Hassan, L.G. and Umar, K.J. (2006). Nutritional value of balsam apple (Momordica balsamina L.) leaves. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 5(6): 522 –529.
Hassan, L.G. and Umar, K.J. (2004). Antinutritive factors in African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa). Proceesings of thr 27th International Conference of the Chemical Society of Nigeria. pp. 322-326.
Hassan, L.G. and Umar, K.J. (2008). Nutritional value of nightshade (Solanum americanum L.) leaves. Electronic Journal of Food and Plants Chemistry 3 (1): 14-17.
Hassan, L.G. Umar, K.J. and Usman, A. (2005a). Nutrient Content of the Leaves of Tribulus terrestris (“Tsaida”). Journal of Tropical Biosciences 5(2): 77– 82.
Hassan, L.G., Umar, K.J. and Gwaram, N.S. (2005b). Nutritional composition of the leaves and stems of Gynandropsis gynandra L. Biological and Environmental Science Journal for the Tropics 2(1): 112 – 119.
Hassan, L.G., Umar, K.J. and Umar, Z. (2007).Antinutritive Factors in Tribulus terrestris (Linn) Leaves and predicted Calcium and Zinc Bioavailability. Journal of Tropical Biosciences 7: 33 – 36.
Hassan, L.G., Umar, K.J., Dangoggo, S.M. and Maigandi, A.S. (2011). Anti-nutrient composition and bioavailability prediction as exemplified by calcium, iron and zinc in Melocia corchorifolia leaves. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10(1): 23–28.
House, W.A. (1999). Trace element bioavailability as exemplified by iron and zinc. Field Crops Research 60: 115 – 141.
Hurrel, R.F, Juillert, M.A., Reddy, M.B., Lynch, S.R., Dassenko, S.A. and Cook, J.D. (1992). Soy protein, phytate and iron absorption in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56: 573 – 578.
Ibrahim, N.D.G., Abdurahman, E.M. and Ibrahim, G. (2001). Elemental analysis of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina and its biological evaluation in rats. Nigerian Journal of Natural Product and Medicine 5: 13 – 16.
Ifon, E.T. and Bassir, O. (1979). The nutritive value of some Nigerian leafy green vegetables – Part 1: Vitamin and mineral contents. Food Chemistry 4: 263 – 267.
Ifon, E.T. and Bassir, O. (1980). The nutritive value of some Nigerian leafy green vegetables – Part 2: The distribution of protein, carbohydrates (including ethanol-soluble simple sugars), crude fat, fibre and ash. Food Chemistry 5: 231 – 235.
Ishida, H., Suzuno, H., Sugiyama, N., Innami, S., Todokoro, T. and Maekawa, A. (2000). Nutritional evaluation of chemical component of leaves stalks and stems of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Poir). Food Chemistry 68: 359 – 367.
Isong, E.U. and U.I. Idiong, (1997). Comparative studies on the nutritional and toxic composition of three varieties of Lesianthera africana. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 51: 79-84.
Itoh, J., Saitoh, Y., Futatsugawa, S., Ishii, K. and Sera, K. (2007). Elemental analysis of edible plants in natural environment: Trace elements in wild plants. International Journal of PIXE 17(3 & 4): 119−127 James, C.A. (1995). Analytical Chemistry of Food. Chapman and Hill, London.
Kennedy, G., Nantel, G. and Shetty, P. (2003). The scourge of “hidden hunger”: global dimensions of micronutrient deficiencies. Food, Nutrition and Agriculture 32: 8-16.
Ladan, M.J., Bilbis, L.S, and Lawal, M. (1986). Nutrient composition of some green leafy vegetables consumed in Sokoto. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 5(1&2): 39 – 44.
Lockett, C.T., Calvert, C.C. and Grivetti, L.E. (2000). Energy and micronutrient composition of dietary and medicinal wild plants consumed during drought: Study of rural Fulani, Northneastern Nigeria. International Journal of Food Sciences
and Nutrition 51: 195 – 208.
Lynch, S.R. and Stoltzfus, R.J. (2003). Iron and ascorbic acid: Proposed fortification levels and recommended iron compounds. The Journal of Nutrition 133: 2978S – 2984S.
McDonald, P., Edwards, R.A., Greenhalgh, F.D. and Morgan, C.A. (1995). Animal Nutrition. Prentices Hall, London, 101-122.
Mitchikpe, E.C.S., Dossa, R.A.M., Afegbo, E-A.D., van Raaiji,J.M.A., Hulshof, P.J.M. and Kok, F.J. (2008). Supply of bioavailable iron and zinc may be affected by phytate in Beninese children. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 21(1): 17-25.
Mohammed, A.M., Wolf, W. and Spieb, W.E.L. (2002). Physical, morphological and chemical characteristics, oil recovery and fatty acid composition of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. Kernels. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 57, 179 – 189.
Monamodi, E.L., Bok, I., Karikari, S.K. (2003). Changes in nutritional composition and yield of two sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars during their growth in Botswana. UNISWA Journal of Agriculture 11: 5 – 14.
Müller, O. and Krawinkel, M. (2005). Malnutrition and health in developing countries. CMAJ 173(3): 279-86
Nnamani, C.V., Oselebe, H.O. and Agbatutu, A. (2009). Assessment of nutritional values of three underutilized indigenous leafy vegetables of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(9): 2321-2324.
Oatway, L. Vasanthan, T. and Helm, J.H. (2001). Phytic acid. Food Reviews International 17(4): 419 – 431.
Oboh, G., Ekperigin, M.M. and Kazeem, M.I. (2005). Nutritional and haemolytic properties of eggplants (Solanum macrocarpon) leaves. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 18: 153 – 160.
Oshodi, A.A., Ipinmoroti, K.O. and Fagbemi, T.N. (1999). Chemical composition, amino acid analysis and functional properties of breadnut (Artocarpus altilis) flour. Nahrung/Food 43: 402 – 405.
Plessi, M., Bertelli, D., Phonzani, A., Simonetti, M.S., Neri, A. and Damiani, P. (1999). Dietary fibre and some elements in nuts and wheat brans. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 12: 91 – 96.
Ramula, P. and Rao, P.U. (2003). Dietary fibre content of fruits and leafy vegetables. Nutrition News 24: 1 – 6.
Sahrawat, K.L., Kumar, G.R. and Rao, J.K. (2002). Evaluation of triacid and dry ashing procedures for determining potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese and copper in plant materials. Communication of Soil Sciences and Plant Analysis 33 (1&2): 95-102.
Saka, J.D.K. and Msonthi, J.D. (1994). Nutritional value of edible fruits of indigenous wild trees in Malawi. Forest Ecology and Management 64: 245 – 248.
Salo-Vaananen, P.P. and Koivistoinen, P.E. (1996). Determination of protein in foods: Comparison of net protein and crude protein (N x 6.25) values. Food Chemistry 57: 27-31.
Sena, L.P., VanderJagt, D.J., Rivera, C., Tsin, A.T.C., Muhammadu, I., Mahamadou, O., Milson, M., Pastosyn, A. and Glew, R.H. (1998). Analysis of Nutritional components of eight famine foods of the republic of Niger. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 52: 17 – 30.
Smith, G.C., Clegg, M.S., Keen, C.L. and Grivetti, L.E. (1996). Mineral values of selected foods common to Southern Burkina Faso and Niamey, Niger, West Africa. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 47: 41-53.
Smith, I.F. (1983). Use of Nigerian leafy vegetables for diets modified in sodium and potassium. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences 4(1): 21 –27.
Tayie, F.A.K and Asibey- Berko, E. (2001). Mineral content of some indigenous vegetables of Ghana. Ghana Journal of Science 41: 49 – 54.
Tomori, W.B. and Obijole, O.A. (2000). Mineral composition of some less utilized vegetables in Nigeria. African Journal of Science and Technology 1: 153 – 157.
Turan, M., Kordali, S., Zengin, H., Dursun, A. and Sezen, Y. (2003). Macro and micro mineral content of some wild edible leaves consumed in Eastern Anatolia. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B, Plant Soil Science 53: 129 – 137.
Umar, K.J. (2005). Proximate Analysis of Seeds and Pulp of African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa L.). MSc. Dissertation, Postgraduate School, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (Unpublished).
Umaru, H.A., Adamu, R., Dahiru, D. and Nadro, M.S. (2007).Levels of antinutritional factors in some wild edible fruits of Northern Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 6(16): 1935-1938
Vadivel, V. and Janardhanan, K. (2000). Chemical composition of the underutilized legume Cassia hirsuta L. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 55: 369-381.
Vainio-Maltila, K. (2000). Wild vegetables used by the Sambaa in the Usambara Mountains, NE Tanzania. Annals of Botany Fennici 37: 57 – 98.
Wachasunder, S.D. and Nafade, A. (2001). Precision and accuracy control in the determination of heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrometry. International Journal of Environmental Studies 58: 517-528.
Wallace, P.A., Marfo, E.K. and Plahar, W.A. (1998). Nutritional quality and antinutritional composition of four non-conventional leafy vegetables. Food Chemistry, 61: 287-291.
Wathelet, B. (1999). Nutritional analysis for proteins and amino acids in beans (Phaseolus sp.). Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment 3: 197-200. Weinberger, K. and Swai, I. (2006). Consumption of traditional vegetables in central and northern Tanzania. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 45: 87 –103.
Weingärtner, L. (2004). The food and nutrition security situation at the beginning of the millennium. Background paper no. II. International training course on food and nutrition security assessment instruments and intervention strategies. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH.
WHO/FAO/UNU, (1985). Report: Energy and protein requirements: WHO technical report series No. 724, pp. 220 (WHO Geneva).